Thursday, February 20, 2020

Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Development Essay

Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Development - Essay Example No consideration has been given to the impact of business practices on the environment. This has resulted into an increase in the global warming, and the natural resources reserves are diminishing all over the world. As people learned more and more about these facts owing to the immense universal rise in the literacy rate since the past few years, they have developed a sense of responsibility towards the environment. Ethics and ethical concepts like corporate social responsibility were never given as much importance as they are valued in the contemporary age. There has been a general discouragement and disliking for environment ruining businesses. As a result of this, modern day entrepreneurs face additional challenge of having to comply with the ethical standards in order to gain competitive advantage over their contemporaries in the market. Business ethics is a concept that is getting increasingly prominent in the current market scenario. It is a â€Å"buzz word† in the mode rn age corporations (Arrizza, 2009). This has also invited much debate owing to the conflict between the intrinsic nature of business and the ethical standards it is required to comply with. Business ethics is increasingly being taught in schools all over the world presently. ... Discussion: In any kind of business, the owner makes cost and benefit analysis of his decision to know whether the cost incurred in taking the action surpasses or is less than the expected benefits. Interestingly, what is beneficial to an entrepreneur is often harmful for many others and vice versa. Few decades ago, the doyen of market economics, Milton Friedman overtly expressed the concerns of a businessman saying, â€Å"There is one and only one social responsibility of business—to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.† (Friedman cited in, 2000). Business owners tend to measure the financial benefits of their decisions. Any attempt that is business driven is an attempt to maximize the profits. A successful business is often quite ignorant of the implications of the owners’ actions on the society at large. This can be attributed to the fact that the stakeholders affected by the businessman’s decisions often realize that their rights have been subdued or they have been harmed in any way much after the harm was actually caused. For example, as the technological era was gaining strength, more and more industries were being established. The establishment of factories and industries was seen as a sign of development. People were not educated much. The scientific research was also not quite mature and sufficient to judge the environmental impacts of the conventional practices that were in place. The factories discharged waste into the water, and polluted the air with chemical rich dust. No one actually estimated the dreadful impacts of such practices until global warming showed up in the form of a

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Statistics for managers individual work wk9 Coursework

Statistics for managers individual work wk9 - Coursework Example The high prices houses are said to be determined by the number of bedrooms, the age of the house, and the number of the bathrooms and their quality. The closeness to the cosmopolitan cities and the shabby (Byers et al 1997). The average selling prices of the houses in USA is also determined by other factor like the prestige associated by the locality of the house. A survey conducted on the Public opinion polls measure not only acceptance of the selling prices of the houses in USA by the citizens, but also public opinion on a wide range of social and economic issues that attribute to the prices of the houses. Public opinion is a critical force in shaping and transforming society most on the matter that influence and affect the public in general. Through opinion research, the public, the media and other interested groups have access to accurate measures of public attitudes and intentions on the issue of the selling prices of the houses. Sociologists can follow shifts of opinion on the major social problems and chart the evolution of the values. And citizens can now make themselves be heard at all times and compare their own view with those of others (Byers et al 1997). There seems to be two groups of academic researchers, in which one continues to support the high selling prices of the houses in USA and its positive impact to the economy, they believe that the main purposes of investment in real estate business is to improve real economic value. It is also agreed that housing leads to improvement in productivity, innovation, and job creation in every field of economy (Kraemer and Dedrick 1996; Agarwal, 1997; Shin 1999; Gray et al, 2000; Lee & Bose 2002; Laudon and Laudon, 2011; and Gecti and Dastan, 2013). The other group criticizes the bad impact of high selling prices of the houses on ecomony and the fact that high selling prices lead to development of low house quality leading to

Monday, January 27, 2020

Looking At The Effects Of Online Gaming

Looking At The Effects Of Online Gaming Introduction In order to find out a relation between online games and various aspect of players life such as learning, behaviour, social life, and others, many studies have been done. When considering, how can online gaming effect on the player, we come to the four main domains. These are learning in the game based environment, relation between violent games and aggressive behaviour, minors and inappropriate content and addictive behaviour. Aim of this essay is to focus on game addiction as it itself affects many aspects of the life. What motivates player to play and why some players become addicted whilst others do not? Further, what from psychological point of view makes the games addictive and what addiction is? Also aim is to identify differences between game genres and the amount of time they are being played and to answer question if and why online games are becoming so much more popular then games played offline. Is an interaction with other people the only reason? LITERATURE REVIEW If there is speech about addiction, there is also need to mention a motivation. As these two go hand in hand. There is no game addict, who has no motivation to play. First to mention is Bartles model (Seay, 2006) of types of players. It defines four types of players and their specific motivations. They are : achiever, explorer, killer and socializer [see appendix C for explanation]. Yee later derived five motivational facets as opposed to Bartles player types. (Seay 2006, Yee 2002) They are : relationship, immersion, achievement, grief, leadership. [see appendix C for explanation]. These were further modified and are being referred to as Facets ÃŽÂ ± (Seay, 2006) They are : Achievement players place an emphasis on feeling like and being regarded by others as accomplished players. Escapism players value gaming as an opportunity to get away from the pressures of the real world. Role playing players enjoy the fact that gaming allows them to become part of a fantasy world. Manipulation manipulation players are characterized by a desire to annoy and exploit other players. Relationship Relationship players are attracted to the social aspects of gaming. [for full description see Appendix] Challenge and skills are interrelated and the diagram below helps to understand difference between online and offline games in relation to addiction. (Hernà ¡ez, 2006) used this diagram based on the study of psychologist Csikszentmihalyi, to demonstrate relation between skills and challenge. According to Csikszentmihalyi (1990) flow is the state in which people are so intensely involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it. If applied on video game, it is clear that game should increase challenge equally to players skill, to keep the player within the flow. According to annual report (Nielsen 2008) 56% of light gamers and 78% of heavy gamers play online games. In most offline games the difficulty is set at the start and will remain on the same level till the end of the game. What leads to player moving from flow to control and eventually to boredom, when he losing interest. Whereas online games, particularly massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) are designed to keep player in the flow by increasing challenges accordingly to abilities. MMORPGs are most often connected to the game addiction. Yee 2002 wrote about attraction and motivation factors of MMORPG games. Motivations are mentioned above, so lets explain attraction factors. There are three main attraction factors of mmorpg that encourage time investment and personal attachment. Briefly these are : Inherent reward cycle player is always close to some reward, whether it is level, skill or quest Network of online friends that player accumulates over time. They encourage playing to remain at the same level so they can keep playing together Immersive nature of virtual environment which encourage players to become attached to their virtual characters and tries to enchant player with a fantasy, and make him feel that he is part of something grand and extraordinary Parker 2009 defines addiction as : psychological disorder that affects the way the brain functions by impacting chemical processes related to motivation, decision making, learning, inhibitory control, and pleasure seeking. Behavioural addictions like gambling and sex are forms of psychological dependence; addictions to substances like drugs and alcohol are forms of both psychological and physical dependence. [ for full description see appendix B] When it comes to particular effects as a consequences of addictive behaviour these can be divided into two categories. First is the one which contain physiological consequences, which are mostly the same as with general excessive use of computer whatever the reason (work, games, internet..) and these count back problems, dry eyes, repetitive stress injuries, negative changes in sleep patterns, irregular eating, leading to starvation or obesity, and drowsiness and depression of immune system from lack of sleep (Grabianovski, 2010). These are the same for everyone. The second category represents psychological effects. These are mainly connected to change in the social life of the player and may be various for every player, depending on what type of player it is and what are his motivations for playing. Seay 2006 assumes that players driven by achievement and escapism are most likely to get addicted. Low ability of self regulation is another factor contributing to addictive behaviour. Bandura (1999 cited in Seay 2006, p. 44-45) defines in his social cognitive theory term self-regulation as : the ability of an individual to manage his own behaviour through observation, evaluation, and consequation. Increased amount of play hours leads to loneliness, decreased social support and decreased size of social network (Seay, 2006. p. 54) and these factors contribute to development of depression. Freeman 2006 defines massively multiplayer online role-playing games as : a particular genre of online games in which players from around the world create their own characters that interact with other players in the games virtual world. Players gain points with which to buy powers and advance in the never ending game played in real time. As all players are consistently improving the challenge for others remains on high level even when playing for long time. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Data were collected for the research through questionnaire, because aim was to get a larger amount of quantitative data rather than smaller amount of qualitative data. Twenty five participants (six women) aged in range between eighteen and thirty one years participated. Questionnaire was made anonymous and self-administered in order to maximize rate of honest answers, since some people may feel embarrassed for their answers and thus prefer to answer not honestly if identity is known or when talking face to face on interview. Care was taken to avoid questions, which could cause embarrassment, anger, sadness or frustration. Idea of using observation seems to be not appropriate at all, since it is very time consuming and natural behaviour of observed participant is very questionable. The questions used are closed except of two. Because of the nature of questions, three of them contain option of multiple answers. Reason is to make it easier for participants, by listing the most expected answers and add field for other__ answer, for the case appropriate answer was not included in the list, rather than make question opened. Likely participants would instead of writing full list of their reasons just leave some out. Open question is No.5, which asks for reason why participant prefer online games as this may be more very specific reasons. Also question No.8 is open, asking participant for three favourite games. Purpose is to determine favourite games genre in relation to playing time. To confirm that online MMORPG are most popular among heavy players. To get a further information relating to motivations, it would be useful if participants filled out a online test for Bartles types. DESIGN METHODOLOGY Idea was to prove that mmorpg games are most popular among heavy and hard-core players, as they cover motivation elements of all four player types defined in Bartles model. Further to identify what are the factors, that lead player to addictive behaviour. RESERACH RESULTS Three quarters of participants stated they prefer to play online games. More than one third play video games for more than 15 hours a week. More than half of them consider main reason to be higher challenge and nearly the same number stated the reason to be socializing with people online. Other reasons occur only marginally. See appendix A for charts. EVALUATION OF RESULTS The main reason for playing online games in general is higher challenge, what matches with Csikszentmihalyis diagram and adds credit to its validity. The most popular game played online is first person shooter, but when it comes to hardcore players the mmorpg games become dominant. MMORPG offer open end gameplay in virtual world which is virtually endless, that is the reason why, heavy (more skilled) players are more engaged in online games. Half of the participants for this research, play for less than 8 hours a week, so it is hard to demonstrate relation between playing time and mmorpg online games based on data gathered. But comparison was done to demonstrate what part of these occasional or light players play MMORPG games online. Not surprisingly very small part [see chart 4, appendix A]. On question what aspects of life are most affected by playing, the mostly affected are other hobbies and sleep. This was also predictable, when taken to account that number of heavy players FINDINGS AND RECCOMMENDATIONS Increasing popularity of online games is related to Csikszentmihalyis diagram, which defines the flow (challenge/skill). This is what players look for in games and find mostly in online virtual environments (mmorpg). CONCLUSION Game addiction is very dangerous and may lead to social isolation, broken relationship, divorce, job loss, health problems and depression. Well designed MMORPG contain elements for every player type so, whoever plays it, whatever the motivation is, it is somehow included, that is why these games are most addictive.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Philosophy †Free Will vs. Determinism Essay

The dialogue between philosophers over the existence of free will versus the inevitability of determinism is a debate that will always exist. The discussion centers around the true freedom of humans to think and act according to their own judgment versus the concept that humans are intrinsically bound by the physical laws of the universe. Before I enter this chicken and the egg debate I need to quantify my terms: Free will is defined by the great philosopher, St. Thomas Aquinas as â€Å"vis electiva† or free choice. It is the ability of man to contemplate and judge the effects of the actions he is about to take. â€Å"†¦But man acts from judgment, because by his apprehensive power he judges that something should be avoided or sought. But because this judgment, in the case of some particular act, is not from a natural instinct but from some act of comparison in the reason, therefore he acts from free judgment and retains the power of being inclined to various things. † (Aquinas. Suma Theologica) Determinism is a complex notion but is best described by David Hume as the notion that something cannot come from nothing and that all actions have causes preceding them. â€Å"I conceive that nothing taketh beginning from itself, but from the action of some other immediate agent without itself. And that therefore, when first a man hath an appetite or will to something, to which immediately before he had no appetite nor will, the cause of his will, is not the will itself, but something else not in his own disposing. So that whereas it is out of controversy, that of voluntary actions the will is the necessary cause, and by this which is said, the will is also caused by other things whereof it disposeth not, it followeth, that voluntary actions have all of them necessary causes, and therefore are necessitated. † (Hume. Liberty and Nessessity. ) Philosophy and world religion alike were born of the same origins. Each of the two ancient disciplines arose from the quest for the answers to life’s ominous questions. These human questions, archetypical to people of all geographic locations; where did we come from; why are we here; where do we go when we die; unite us as a race. It is no coincidence that each religion and theology from all four corners of the earth tackles these black holes of human logic. Each religion carves their own individual explanations of these unanswerable questions into their core belief systems, each one centrally different than others. However, they all share one common thought; each shares a belief in an afterlife determined by the choices made in life. Free will is the common denominator in all world religions, because all share the essential concept of morality. The widespread acceptance of the concept of morality implies that there is a choice to be had at each and every juncture or life. The choice comes from recognition of good and evil. For good and evil to exist, then there has to be the ability to decipher between the two and also decide to accept one over the other. The existence of morality alone proves that free will exists, because without the freedom to choose right or wrong in any given situation there would be no qualitative measure of the â€Å"rightness† or â€Å"wrongness† of ones actions. David Hume comments on the origin of morality and its place in our everyday decision making processes, â€Å"Only when you turn your reflexion into your own breast, and find a sentiment of disapprobation† (Hume.Treatise of Human Nature). In other words, there are no outside stimuli that can decipher good from evil; the line can only be drawn by internal thought. Hume was a naturalist in that his vision of the world and therefore stance of philosophy was based directly through the experiences of the senses. His stance on many issues directly originated from his ability to experience it with the five senses, and on the subject of morality he takes exception. Even he recognizes the existence of morality in everyday life, even though it cannot be explained through the lens of the senses. It would seem that morality’s acceptance must therefore prove that free will exists, but there is one essential school of thought yet to weigh on this topic; science. Science was the latest bloomer of the three major disciplines of existential explanation and in the post modern era is becoming more and more popular. As the world becomes further secularized and the reaches of scientific logic continue to exceed their grasp, many of the world’s intellectuals identify â€Å"truth† on a scientific scale. Science does not support the theory of morality, because it can’t be proven to exist. The notion of â€Å"free-will†, something which world religion and philosophies alike recognize as a fundamental part of our human anatomy, is called into question in a few simple and logical ways. Science supports the theory of determinism as the only logical explanation of the unfolding of the actions of our lives. First off, science has recently developed the discipline known to us as physics, in which the laws of the universe have been defined. In the short time in which humans have been graced by the scientific understanding of the laws of the universe, human kind has yet to fully step back and contemplate the magnitude of this discovery. In generations past, humans believed that we were made special with â€Å"free will†, but now we know that like all things in the universe we are subject to the physical laws. This is a huge step forward in rational thinking because it allows us to understand that our previously God given concept of â€Å"free will† was really a result of a lack of understanding of the deterministic laws of the universe. For instance a law as simple and commonly accepted as â€Å"gravity† challenges the idea of free will. Gravitational pull determines that no matter the size of an object, once separate from the surface of the earth will be dragged back down at the same force every time. This is a simple concept that we take for granted, but it works in the free will v. determinism argument. We are ruled by gravity, and therefore all of our lives activities answer to it. We can’t choose to jump off a building and float in the air because we’ll be pulled back to the ground to our imminent deaths. We can’t choose to stay younger and keep our skin tight to our faces because gravity’s long-term effect causes our skin to droop down towards the ground. The choices I just listed may seem farfetched to some, however, if we examine the notion that we have â€Å"free will† in the empirical sense of the word we see that not all of our decisions are controlled by us, and that we fall victim to the tyrannical rule of the physical laws of the universe. We aren’t truly â€Å"free† to create our own actions in life. Albert Einstein offers a particularly apt synopsis, â€Å"Everything is determined, the beginning as well as the end, by forces over which we have no control. It is determined for the insect as well as the star. Human beings, vegetables, or cosmic dust, we all dance to a mysterious tune, intoned in the distance by an invisible piper. † (Albert Einstein) The rule of physical law aside, which hinders us from truly being â€Å"free† to choose our own actions in life, is a much more simple scientific argument that dispels the notion of free will. For example: Say a 20 year old man murders another man in cold blood. They have no affiliation, no prior knowledge of who each other is, or reason to dislike each other. Man A walks up to random Man B and shoots and kills him. Was this action of Man A a result of â€Å"free will†? To examine the notion fully you need to look at his action coming from two sources. Either Man A was born with the moral flaw to allow himself to find killing another human acceptable, or that Man A was influenced during the course of his life by interactions and actions of others and came to that conclusion based on his own experience. There is no other explanation for Man A to willingly choose to open fire on Man B and kill him. If we look at the first option, Man A’s natural moral compass was skewed, allowing for him to conceive the notion that killing another is okay. This speaks to the determinant nature of our chemical makeup. Its possible his DNA made a mistake coding somewhere and he developed overtime and understood that killing another is â€Å"wrong† or maybe that his entire sense of â€Å"right from wrong† was skewed inside his mind. This would lead Man A to lead a life normally on the outside, and yet without regard for consequence, open fire on another man and kill him as easily as he could have held a door for him. This is the idea that he naturally had the capacity to kill, and that he could not control it. Eventually one of his animalistic impulses would finally stick and he’d be in the right place at the right time, and that it was only a matter of time until he killed someone. If you don’t subscribe to that theory and believe that he chose to kill Man B that day, try and consider that the results will still be pre-determined. If Man A killed Man B due to his choice, then his own â€Å"free will† and judgment that he finds reprehensible to kill another man can’t be attributed to truly â€Å"free† will of choice. Not every human kills others as part of their natural lifestyle, as they might kiss or mate with another. In fact a very small percentage of people in the world murder other humans, and this begs the question of why? What makes this small percentage of people â€Å"choose† to kill another person? The answer is that if they choose to do it, and they weren’t previously miswired so as said in the prior paragraph, then they must have been influenced by their surroundings. When Man A was six years old he didn’t choose to murder Man B, the events of his life led him to make this decision about whether or not murder was okay. This is yet another reason that he wasn’t truly free to choose; outside influence hinders the ability to choose freely. Whether he was abused, molested, lost a loved one, or just plain fed up with the monotony of everyday life in society, something pushed him over the edge. Something allowed for him to justify his actions; that something is outside influence. This deterministic train of thought explains why people do what they do, but not when. What makes us actually hit the point of no return, or when will the right opportunity hit the right mood leading the right action? (In our example the murder of Man B) The paradox between â€Å"free will† and â€Å"determinism† exists because of the influence of the different schools of thought. If one aligns his personal truth based on religious fervor, then an understanding of â€Å"free will† can exist logically and on the other hand if one bases his logic around science then â€Å"determinism† seems to be the only answer. So where does that leave philosophy, the great bridge between the two polarized schools of thought? It leaves philosophy somewhere in the middle, examining the validity of both sides of the argument, and helping to shed light on the debate over whether or not we truly are free to make a choice or if we are merely floating along the currents of the universe. Personally, I’m lost somewhere in the middle, hoping that the answer to this time-old question will be revealed. Works Cited: * Aquinas, St. Thomas. Sancti Thomae Aquinatis †¦ : Suma Theologica †¦ Parisiis: Apud Sebastianum Et Gabrielem Cramoisy, 1640. Print. * Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature: in Two Volumes. London: Dent, 1934. Print. * Hume, David. Liberty and Necessity: an Argument against Free-will and in Favor of Moral Causation. London: Progressive Pub. 1890. Print.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Hard Times and Utilitarianism Essay

â€Å"NOW, what I want is, Facts†, and so starts Charles Dickens novel Hard Times which first appeared as a serial publication in 1854. Dickens regularly took inspiration from the prevailing conditions as topics of his writings and proceeds to make social commentaries through his brand of creative fiction. Examples of these are Oliver Twist (Dickens, 1837) and Bleak House (Dickens, 1952). Hard Times was similarly inspired. The novel is mainly a critic of Utilitarianism, the dominant philosophy at the time the novel was written. As Geoffrey Scarre (1996) stated in his book entitled Utilitarianism, â€Å"The eighteenth century was the green youth of utilitarianism, as the nineteenth was its prime† (p. 49). The term utilitarianism was first coined by Jeremy Bentham in 1781 (Bailey, 1997, p. 3). His ideas were much derided even then and at the House of Commons at that when Lord Brougham dismissing Bentham as, â€Å"’having dealt more with books than with men† (Mack, 1963, p. 2). Yet, despite his seeming notoriety the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 was passed which defined and classified the poor and outlined how should be handled. â€Å"The Act was and is seen as more or less Benthamite† as concluded by Peter Stokes (2001) in his article entitled Bentham, Dickens and the Uses of the Workhouse (p. 711). It was against this Act that Dickens created Oliver Twist. Dickens’ continues his propaganda against such philosophy with Hard Times. While personifying the basic tenets of utilitarianism in his book, he is, on the other hand, equally condemning it in the same breath. This is already evident as you read the second paragraph where he strips his purported hero of facts of any semblance of respect when he describes the character that is Thomas Gradgrind rather comically with his hair and head as â€Å"a plantation of firs to keep the wind from its shining surface, all covered with knobs, like the crust of a plum pie† (Dickens, 2007, p. 10). This is a deliberate ploy to set an image in the reader’s mind which can effectively cloud anything the character will expound upon even if it may lean towards the rational and acceptable. Dickens’ use of various figures of speech is also ironic as it runs contrary to the basic tenets his character is espousing. This form of mockery can be seen all throughout the novel up until the end when Gradgrind sees the lights and begins â€Å"making his facts and figures subservient to Faith, Hope, and Charity†(Dickens, 2007, p. 387). What is it about utilitarianism that Dickens’ seems to be vehemently opposed to? Several of its principles were taken up in the book. Dickens took a one-sided approach and presented it on an extreme scale and argued against it. We will explore how these were countered by Dickens by using excerpts from the book. In Bentham’s (1996) An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation he declared that â€Å"An action then may be said to be conformable to the principle of utility . . . when the tendency it has to augment the happiness of the community is greater than any it has to diminish it† (p. 12-13). Simply, put, as long as the number of people who are happy is greater that those who are not happy, then all is well. However, this main concept was methodically censured by Dickens by using examples that touched heavily on human interest which therefore, from the perspective of the humane, such reasoning would not be justified at all. A question on prosperity was posed to girl number twenty to which she replied: I thought I couldn’t know whether it was a prosperous nation or not, and whether I was in a thriving state or not, unless I knew who had got the money, and whether any of it was mine. But that had nothing to do with it. (Dickens, 2007, p. 82) With this illustration, it is maintained that the individual good should not be relegated to any mathematical computations. The point was further driven home with the next example. And he said, This schoolroom is an immense town, and in it there are a million of inhabitants, and only five-and-twenty are starved to death in the streets, in the course of a year. What is your remark on that proportion? And my remark was – for I couldn’t think of a better one – that I thought it must be just as hard upon those who were starved, whether the others were a million, or a million million. And that was wrong, too. (Dickens, 2007, p. 82) It is thus contended that such principle cannot and should never be adapted in the formulation of policies and the establishment of institutions when it comes to people’s well-being as we are more than mere data and statistics. This, however, is not the case in Coketown. Coketown is the community where the all the main characters worked and dwelled, survived and tarried about. This was where the major events occurred. Since it has already been established early on that following the tenets of fact can not lead to anything fanciful, it is not surprising that Coketown was depicted to be very spartan and has retained only â€Å"what was severely workful† (Dickens, 2007, p. 37). It is an industrial town that is generally void of lively entertainment and distractions if one can see through the smoke with the textile plant as the main source of income and employment for the â€Å"Hands†, a rather curt label to its workers as if there are no living and feeling beings attached to those appendages. Coketown, as John R. Harrison (2000) described it in his essay, â€Å"represents the domination of an inhuman, utilitarian, industrial ethos† (p. 115). Yet, Coketown can be viewed as the reality of fact. It embodies the concrete representation of the theories of utilitarianism which further belies its effectivity on a community that lives to live and not just survive. Within the town, there is the school run by schoolmasters who share Gradgrind’s methods and beliefs. It can be gathered that they have great memorization skills and would most likely be able to rattle off any observable characteristics of any person, place or thing. The teaching is so rigid that there is simply no place for any sort of creativity. There is just black and white. â€Å"Murdering the Innocents† indeed as the chapter is aptly called. That in itself plainly shows Dickens’ disapproval of such a stiff approach in education where minds are dictated to rather than molded. A further commentary on the misleadingly laudable wealth of knowledge was given, â€Å"If he had only learnt a little less, how infinitely better he might have taught much more! † (Dickens, 2007, p. 18). Another argument against utilitarianism is its apparent support of inequality while still following the happiness principle of the greater good. Utilitarianism claims that a relevant reason for tolerating inequalities is a gain in efficiency; that is, we should be prepared to tolerate the fact that some persons’ lives go less well than others if some aggregate of personal good is greater. (Bailey, 1997, p. 10) This principle is personified in the book by Josiah Bounderby, owner of the textile mill, owner of the bank, owner of the loudest mouth in Coketown. How he came about his wealth was not detailed in his narration of his rags-to-riches story. However, he is not one who attracts admiration and awe for his accomplishments. On the contrary, he is morally ruined by choosing only what he deems to be advantageous to him. He fully appreciates what he has with no regard to level off the disparity. Instead, he maintains and continues to attempt to raise his status even more by denigrating the lives of others. It was a fundamental principle of the Gradgrind philosophy that everything was to be paid for. Nobody was ever on any account to give anybody anything, or render anybody help without purchase. Gratitude was to be abolished, and the virtues springing from it were not to be. Every inch of the existence of mankind, from birth to death, was to be a bargain across a counter. And if we didn’t get to Heaven that way, it was not a politico-economical place, and we had no business there. (Dickens, 2007, p. 375) Dickens demonstrates here that the greater good is subject to a lot of interpretations and it is normally self-serving in that the one who seems to be higher on the scale will never relinquish his power to those who had now been branded as the lesser good. However, the tentacles of the stick-to-the-facts approach did not stop within the boundaries of the town. It must be noted that Gradgrind was being aided by a government official during his discourse with the students in the first chapter who more than willingly shared his beliefs and even went on to imply that these teachings must be applied at all times, at every opportunity and in every aspect of one’s life even at something as mundane as papering your walls or carpeting your floors. Do not do anything that is contrary to reality. There is no form merely function. What is all the more alarming is that Gradgrind was later made a Member of Parliament, â€Å"one of the representatives of the multiplication table, one of the deaf honourable gentlemen, dumb honourable gentlemen. . . â€Å" (Dickens, 2007, p. 127). Dickens makes it known that despite the fallacies and inhumane improbabilities of the radical teachings of utilitarianism, it can still muster followers and influence policies. Therefore, Dickens continues with more events and inevitable results and consequences in his book to trample any other doubt remaining as regards unyielding adherence to facts. One thing that can be said about living things is that their behavior can never be predicted. Take, for example, the white tiger which mauled the magician Roy Horn in spite of it being with them for several years without any incident. More so with people whose thinking processes are more complex. One cannot take a general rule and expect that all will react and comply with it unvaryingly. Current studies have now shown that â€Å"all aspects of personality are fundamentally unique and idiosyncratic to each individual† (Deary, 2003, p. 6). Despite lack of any scientific proof, Dickens’ had already concluded that even individuals who practically grew up living, studying, acting out a way of life are merely suppressing their true nature and would inevitably fight back one way or the other. With these, let us now take a look at Tom, the whelp and Louisa. Tom and Louisa first made their appearance in the book in Chapter III aptly entitled The Loophole. The â€Å"eminently practical father† was basking in his conviction that his children were the models of factual upbringing when he came upon his two eldest children one peeping through a hole in the wall and other peeping through the crack underneath the wall. It could be imagined that time came to a stop with all three just looking at each other with incredulous expressions on their faces. It was bound to happen that children’s innate curiosity will get the better of them and explore realms outside their scope. The rule of thumb is when met with rules, immediately find ways to go around it; look for loophole. There were already indications of deviations from the inflexible path provided them. The mere fact that Louisa has began to wonder even if she was chastised to â€Å"never wonder† (Dickens, 2007, p. 71). There is no room for sentimentality or â€Å"fancy†, if you will, and is simply not allowed for the logical reason that it is e not concrete. It is not based on the real. It has no parts that can be broken down and studied. It cannot be calculated. Utilitarianism hinders that aspect that distinguishes us from the rest of the animal kingdom and that is the ability to feel and think in abstracts. Utilitarians, may contend however, that anatomically, it would be the opposable thumb that sets us apart. The gradual breakdown of the children who had such an upbringing took on different routes but both led to a destruction of their seemingly perfect lives. Tom gave much credence to his pseudo-freedom from the stifling rigidity of science and math and into the arms of vice. No productive outlet or substitute was provided for his suppressed emotions and was therefore easily addicted and resorted to get-rich quick schemes. Louisa, on the other hand, had no choice but to give in to expectations of her and that is to get married which led to the further repression of her emotions. Questions on social issues can be gleaned from the discussion of marriage between Gradgrind and his daughter where Gradgrind, typical of a man and worse, a man blinded by facts and practicality could not read between the lines as he itemizes the pros and the cons of the proposal of marriage as if it is a mere business proposal and must be approached with much objectivity. What should take precedence when it comes to marriages? Should it be for practical purposes or tests of compatibility? If neither is no longer present, should one cut ties altogether? Anyway, as Gradgrind continues to be practical, his daughter laments as she is about to enter into next phase of adulthood when she has yet to experience childhood. ‘Why, father,’ she pursued, ‘what a strange question to ask me! The baby-preference that even I have heard of as common among children, has never had its innocent resting-place in my breast. You have been so careful of me, that I never had a child’s heart. You have trained me so well, that I never dreamed a child’s dream. You have dealt so wisely with me, father, from my cradle to this hour, that I never had a child’s belief or a child’s fear. ’ (Dickens, 2007, p. 138) And to this, â€Å"Mr. Gradgrind was quite moved by his success, and by this testimony to itâ€Å" (Dickens, 2007, p. 138) only to listen and break down and do some soul-searching himself when Louisa has finally allowed herself several years later to break free from her suppression and made her father understood the misery in her heart and the consequences it will ultimately bring. Another hapless victim was Mrs. Gradgrind herself who was reduced to something quite insignificant as she had been unable to cope with the academic precepts. She was however given the chance to salvage what remained of her true self and only because she gave up trying to absorb the useless facts that cluttered and rattled in her mind. It also makes a resounding statement that the redeeming characters in the book were only partly or not at all exposed to the tenets prescribed by Gradgrind. There was Sissy Jupe a. k. a. Cecilia to Gradgrind a. k. a.  girl number twenty to her schoolmasters. She only joined the family later on and while she was not spared the rigors of fact bombardment, she was able to escape intact having had a solid upbringing in an atmosphere of discipline, fun and love. On impulse and on love, she was able to right the wrongs. She was able to persuade Harthouse, Louisa’s intended lover from leaving not through logic but by faith. She was able save Jane, Gradgrind’s younger daughter from the plight of Louisa by opening to her a childhood not before experienced in that household. Then there was Rachael, a Hand in the textile mill who did not have any formal schooling. Yet, this did not belittle her in the reader’s eyes because she had enough compassion to carry the whole town. Then there were the circus people. They were the only community who consistently showed a semblance of emotion, of camaraderie, of caring. Even the dog, Merrylegs, manifested human attributes and possibly gained more sympathy than Bounderby who publicly embarrassed himself for lying about his own mother and denying his heritage. All the proponents of utilitarianism met their downfall while those who showed humanity led fulfilling lives. Gradgrind himself has discovered that aside from the â€Å"wisdom of the Head. . . there is the wisdom of the Heart† (Dickens, 2007, p. 295) and Dickens was magnanimous enough to give his character a chance at true happiness. We end this paper with words from Sleary, circus owner and philosopher as he sums up how it is and how it should be when dealing with your fellow men and when dealing with life.

Friday, January 3, 2020

International Business Opportunities Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2404 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? The purpose of this research is to examine the potential business opportunities in Oman, especially in exporting telecommunication equipment into this country. Therefore, Omans macro-environmental factors such as Cultural Environment, Political and Legal Environment and Economic Environment will be discussed in term of international trade. Moreover, the research will summary the countrys current international trade 2009 in comparison to that of after 1970 when the nations name was changed to the sultanate of Oman. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "International Business Opportunities Example For Free" essay for you Create order On the other hand, theories and concepts of International Trade will be used to determine attitude of the government to international trade strategy. Then, some recommendation will be given in conclusion part to improve the current position international trade of Oman. 1. Business Environment in Oman 1.1 Cultural Environment in Oman Language: Arabic is the official language of Oman, and English and Asian languages such as Hindi, Urdu, and Baluchi are also widely spoken. Swahili is spoken by some, a legacy of Oman ´s former East African presence. English is widely used in business. Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu) 25% Omani Culture Key Concepts and Values In-depth understanding of Omans unique business culture and etiquette can be key factor to become success in doing business in Oman. Omani believes in key concept and values as below: The culture of Oman firmly relates to the principles of Islamic religion. Omani society highly appreciates status that is represented by age, wealth and family or tribal relations. The hierarchy present in Omani society can be seen in the use of titles and formal greetings. Relationships and mutual trust are paramount for any successful business interaction and can only be developed through face-to-face meetings. It is important to therefore spend time with your Omani business counterparts and have frequent meetings to ensure that the relationship continues to develop (Communiciad, 2007). 1.2 Political Environment in Oman Political power in Oman is dominated by Sultan Qaboos ibn Said Al Said who is responsible for all major decision-making and government appointments. Since coming to power in 1970 in a coup detat, Sultan Qaboos has committed himself to promoting the countrys modernization, economic diversification as well as continued political stability (EDC Economics). Oman ranked 31st out of 180 countries in Transparency Internationals 2009 Corruption Perception Index, receiving a score of 5.5/10, with higher scores indicating less corruption. Table 1.2: Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2009 Rank Country/Territory CPI 2009 Score Surveys Used Confidence Range 1 New Zealand 9.4 6 9.1 9.5 2 Denmark 9.3 6 9.1 9.5 3 Singapore 9.2 9 9.0 9.4 3 Sweden 9.2 6 9.0 9.3 5 Switzerland 9.0 6 8.9 9.1 39 Brunei Darussalam 5.5 4 4.7 6.4 39 Oman 5.5 5 4.4 6.5 The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) table shows a countrys ranking and score, the number of surveys used to determine the score, and the confidence range of the scoring. The rank shows how one country compares to others included in the index. The CPI score indicates the perceived level of public-sector corruption in a country/territory. The CPI is based on 13 independent surveys. However, not all surveys include all countries. The surveys used column indicates how many surveys were relied upon to determine the score for that country. The confidence range indicates the reliability of the CPI scores and tells us that allowing for a margin of error; we can be 90% confident that the true score for this country lies within this range. Source: Transparency International 1.3 Economic Structure and Growth in Oman Oman is a rural, agricultural country, and fishing and the governments economic development policy emphasizes the expansion of such non-oil sectors as agriculture, fishing, industry, and mining in its bid to diversify the economy and diminish its dependence on oil exports. Table 1.3 will illustrate economic indicators and the contribution of key sectors in the economic growth of Oman in the period of 2005-2009 Table 1.3: Omans Economic Indicators Index 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 GDP (purchasing power parity)in billion USD$ 40.39 44.53 60.89 67.65 69.48 GDP per capita (PPP) 15,734 16,973 18,999 20,400 20,300 GDP- real growth rate (%) 5.6% 6.6% 5.6% 6.4% 2.7% Contributions to GDP (%)      1. Petroleum Activities 49.44 47.62 44.30 50.48 40.95 1.1 Crude Petroleum 45.72 43.50 40.57 46.82 37.02 1.2 Natural Gas 3.71 4.11 3.72 3.66 3.94 2. Non- Petroleum Activities 52.80 54.10 57.22 50.60 61.30 2.1 Agrl. Fishing 1.54 1.35 1.30 1.00 1.38 2.2 Industry 14.25 16.17 17.12 16.63 18.57 2.3 Services Activities 37.02 36.57 38.79 32.95 41.35 Source: CIA World Factbook; Central Bank of Oman 2. International Trade in Oman 2.1 The Nature of Omans International Trade Overseas trading is important to Oman. The discovery of oil drastically improved Omans economy. Sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped build Omans budget, trade surpluses and foreign reserves. Crude oil, refined petroleum, and natural gas account for most exports while imports consist mainly of machinery and transport equipment, basic manufactured goods, and foodstuffs. Some manufactured products are also exported. In spite of the fact that over the past 30 years, Oman has come to rely more and more on imports, Oman has enjoyed trade surplus through advantage of exporting the production of crude oil. Among the countrys major trading partners are China, Japan, South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates. (See Appendix 1) Source: UN Comtrade Table 2.1: Oman Trade Items 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Export (US$bn) 1.044 2.386 4.705 5.508 5.962 11.32 18.69 21.59 24.69 37.72 27.65 Import (US$bn) 0.765 1.732 3.153 2.681 4.248 4.59 8.03 9.88 14.34 20.71 18.46 Trade balance (US$bn) 0.279 0.654 1.552 2.827 1.714 6.73 10.66 11.71 10.35 17.01 9.19 Source: UN Comtrade 2.2 Attitude to International Trade of Oman Oman has diplomatic relations with over 140 countries and is a member of over 105 regional and international organizations. On 7th October 1971, Oman gained membership in the UN and its specialized organs (IMF, World Bank); the nation belongs to ESCWA and all the non-regional specialized agencies except IAEA. Oman also participates in G-77, GCC, and the Arab League, as well as the Islamic Conference. Oman accessed to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on November 9, 2000, which facilitated Omans integration into the global marketplace. In addition, Oman has sign several co-operation agreements with 20 countries. It concluded a free-trade agreement (FTA) with the United States, signed on 19 January 2006, covering trade in goods, IPRs, and services (WTO). Through these formal economic co-operations with other nations, Oman has become more dependable trading partner and more attractive destination for majority foreign-owned investment. Thus, the potential for exporting telecommunic ation equipment into Oman is closer. The governments trade policy space, as measured by the wedge between bound and applied tariffs (the overhang), has been relatively constant in the recent years and in 2008 it was 8.3 percent for Oman. Oman has a very liberal services trade regime, and as such is ranked 13th out of 148 countries according to the GATS Commitment Index. Moreover, the Omans government is engaged in an aggressive effort to woo foreign investors and enhance international trade links as part of the ambitious Vision 2020 program of economic diversification aimed at reducing the countrys dependence on shrinking reserves of oil. 3. Viewing Omans International Trade Through Theories Related 3.1 The Nature of Advantage Daniels and Radebaugh (1998) have summarised advantage in the context of International Trade Theory into five categories as below: Natural advantage refers to climate, soil and nature resources; Acquired advantage refers to technology and skill development; Comparative advantage against another nations endowment of assets; Country size as a proxy for the range of natural factors such as climate, soil, minerals and etc, size of population that provides opportunities to process materials and create markets; Factor proportions that suggest their optimum utilisation in production. Daniels, Radebaugh and Sullivan (2004) Framework, the evolution of International Trade Theory is depicted as below: Besides Porters Competitive Advantage of Nations theory, this research will use Product Life Cycle theory and Absolute Advantage theory to explore the status of international trade in Oman. Adam Smiths Absolute Advantage Theory According to Adam Smith (1776), a countrys would be either natural or acquired. Relating to Oman, this countrys economy is heavily reliant on oil exports for revenue, though diversification into natural gas production has mitigated this to a degree. About two-thirds of Omans total energy consumption comes from natural gas and the remainder comes from oil, reflecting the countrys relative abundance of oil and natural gas reserves. Product Life Cycle theory Raymond Vernons (1966) International product life cycle (PLC) theory of trade states that the certain kinds of products shifts as they go through a continuum, or cycle, that consists of four stages Introduction, Growth, Maturity, and Decline- and that the location of production will shift internationally depending on the stage of the cycle (Daniels Radebaugh, 1998 pp. 206). Table 3.1: Telecommunication Equipment Imported Source: Oman Economic Studies, 2007, p233-334- Icon Group International, Inc. Telecommunication equipments are the major products that Oman imported to speed up telecommunication industry growth. In 2007, Oman imported of USD$217 billion for these products. Therefore, the market for telecommunication equipments in Oman would relate to figure (C) less developed countries, because Oman has been lack of resource and ability in term of innovative technology to produce itself these products that require higher technology. In contrast, some countries in EU have advantage of technology and knowledge will focus on exporting telecommunication equipments into Oman to gain more profit. 3.2 Justification of Telecommunication Equipment Industry Potential in Oman The Omans government has embarked on an ambitious campaign to develop the information technology (IT) sector. Agreements between Oman Telecommunications Company (Omantel) and foreign firms hold the potential to significantly expand telecommunications services and lay the ground for the establishment of a state-of-the-art IT infrastructure. In May 2006, Telecommunication Minister Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Isa Al-Harthi announced that the government is preparing to fully liberalize the telecommunications sector, with private companies permitted to offer fixed-line and Internet services (U.S Commercial Service 2009). In July 2005, the government, which was required per WTO commitments to liberalize its telecom sector, floated 30 percent of its shares in state telecoms giant Omantel (formerly known as the General Telecommunications Organization, or GTO). Importantly, Oman offer exemption from customs duty on import of plant and equipment (Website OCIPED). 3.3 Summary of Oman current trade position using the extended form of Porters Diamond of National Competitiveness Source: (Dunning 1993) According to Porter (1994), there are four principal attributes of a nations international success in a particular industry such as: Factor conditions; Demand conditions; Related and supporting industries and; Company strategy, structure and rivalry. In addition, Porter defines the role of chance as well as the role of government as the secondary determinants. However, a further research by Dunning (1993) proposed that multi-national business activities bring additional factors that may encourage advances in support industries, etc. In term of exporting telecommunication equipment into Oman, the four board attributes of the nation are: Factor conditions would be capital, quality of infrastructure: The modern telecommunications facilities were majorly invested in 1982. Demand conditions would be determined that Overall telecommunications infrastructure and service in Oman remains less developed than in its Gulf neighbors. Fixed line and Internet pe netration rates are low, yet the young and growing population is generating increased demand for modern telecommunications and broadcasting systems (U.S. Commercial Service 2008) . Related and supporting industries would be crude oil and gas industries. As above analysis, these industries contribute 67% into total revenue of Oman and bring trade surplus for this country. As a result, it can support the government fund telecommunication infrastructure improvement plans. Firm strategy, structure, rivalry would be observed that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as large enterprises in Oman tend to invest in equipment to deal with increased competition and take advantage of regional opportunities (BMI report 2009). Relating to exporting telecommunication equipments into Oman, the three secondary determinants are: Chance for Oman is observed that in term of oil and gas reserves this country is ranked the 24 and 29 respectively in the world (CIA nd). Besides t hat, Oman has a strategic geographic location for marine trade. The role of government would relate to: In July 2005, the government, which was required per WTO commitments to liberalize its telecom sector, floated 30 percent of its shares in state telecoms giant Omantel. The company is now looking for a strategic investor in advance of government efforts to open the fixed-line communications sector through the issuance of additional licenses. (U.S. Commercial Service 2008). Multi-national Business Activities in telecommunication industry in Oman have played important role in supplying technology and equipments or software solutions for development of Omans telecommunication market. Omantel has contracted with Ericsson, Siemens and Motorola to expand GSM service in some areas of Oman (U.S. Commercial Service 2008). 4. Recommendations for Omans International Trade Strategy After determine macro-environment and the current position of international trade in Oman, this paper will come into some recommendations with SWOT analysis as below: SWOT Analysis  Strengths Weaknesses   Â ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Oman has advantages of natuaral resources, such as Oil, natural gas, copper, marble, limestone, gypsum, chromium (CIA nd).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚     Small population and small domestic markets are amplified by the absence of a modern, high-value consumer market beyond the capital area (U.S. Commecial Service 2008).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   To reduce the oil sectors contribution to GDP to 9% by 2020, Oman has engaged a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization (CIA nd).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Proven oil reserves have a limited time horizon (approximately 21 years) before depletion (Coface 2009).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   In 2007, the World Economic F reedoms Index ranked Oman the 47th most freedom of trade in the world.  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Vulnerability to downturns in oil prices (Coface 2009).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Stable political system (Coface 2009)  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Dependence on human resources from abroad (Coface 2009).   Opportunities Threats   Â ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  The GCC Common Market has created the free movement of labour and capital among the six member states as well as removing the barriers to inter-GCC trade. (Oman Daily 8th Aug 2010).  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Collapse in oil and gas prices (Political Risk Services- PRS, Ltd)  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Under Free Trade Agreement with USA, Oman would have more opportunities to access to the U.S. consumer market of 290 million people.  ·Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   The country has been threatened by the regions many conflicts (PRS -2009).   In conclusion, through SWOT analysis, it can be observed that Oman should continue to implement plans of diverse economy structure. The current strategy can help Oman avoid risks of heavily depending on oil and gas resources, and also it would facilitate competitive advantage for Oman. APPENDIX Appendix 1: Oman Trade in Brief MERCHANDISE TRADE  Value  Annual percentage change  2008  2000-2008 2007 2008 Merchandiseexports, f.o.b. (million US$) 37,719 16 14 53 Merchandiseimports, c.i.f. (million US$) 23,137 21 45 44    2008 2008 Share in world total exports 0.23 Share in world total imports 0.14 Breakdown in economys total exports Breakdown in economys total imports  By main commodity group (ITS) By main commodity group (ITS)  Agricultural products 2.6 Agricultural products 11.4 Fuels and mining products 78.7 Fuels and mining products 7.1 Manufactures 8.2 Manufactures 79.2 By main destination By main origin  1. China 29.3 1. United Arab Emirates 27.2 2. United Arab Emirates 10.9 2. European Union (27) 17.1 3. Japan 10.6 3. Japan 15.6 4. Korea, Republic of 9.6 4. United States 5.7 5. Thailand 6.8 5. China 4.6 Unspecified destinations 14.7  Unspecified origins   0   COMMERCIAL SERVICES TRADE Value  Annual percentage change  2008  2000-2008  2007 2008 Commercial servicesexports(million US$) 1,974 25 21 Commercial servicesimports(million US$) 6,122 17 25 26    2008 2008 Share in world total exports 0.05 Share in world total imports 0.17   Breakdown in economys total exports Breakdown in economys total imports  By principal services item By principal services item  Transportation 23.7 Transportation 41.5 Travel 40.7 Travel 14 Other commercial services 35.6  Other commercial services  44.5 Source: WTO and national statistics Appendix 2: Omans Telecom Sector Indicators

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Key Concepts Of A Successful Startup - 2402 Words

You need three things to create a successful startup Introduction This paper seeks to enlighten certain features of entrepreneurship on the basis of the following statement:â€Å"You need three things to create a successful startup: to start with good people, to make something customers actually want, and to spend as little money as possible.† ― Paul Graham An initial definition of key concepts will be followed by a thorough analysis that will include a variety of relevant topics which will lead up to a discussion on the thesis statement. Finally, I will state my own opinion on the statement of Paul Graham based on the findings in this paper. To fully understand and comprehend the above statement in order to analyze and discuss whether it is†¦show more content†¦To define what as little money as possible is, I need to look at studies of successful companies, and if they needed capital to start, how much money was nessary to expand their business, did they need external capital to expand, and if their is some correlation between how much money companies spend and how much revenue they are generating. In order to arrive at a good and precise conclusion this paper seeks to answer a number of questions. Can you really define what caractaristics good people have. How can you know if people want the product you have. If you spend as little money as possible, you create a scarcity mindset, which can inhibit growth in the company, so how do you make sure you are not spending to little money. Analasis Good people To determine what makes a good entrepreneur, I look at a study, which is based on +100 individual studies, which looks at the following parameters for the success of the business: Age, gender, ethnicity, education, prior sector experince, prior managirial experience, prior business experience and partners. Age: Young people bring a lot of enthusiasm and energy and are willing to work hard, but is lacking experience. On the other side, older people tend to have more experience and more capital, but often lack the energy and enthusiasm. The study concludes that the best age is the prime age (30-40 year old), because this group both has energy, capital and experince. This is not so easy to make a