Sunday, May 24, 2020

Major General Abner Doubleday in the Civil War

Born at Ballston Spa, NY on June 26, 1819, Abner Doubleday was the son of Representative Ulysses F. Doubleday and his wife, Hester Donnelly Doubleday. Raised in Auburn, NY, Doubleday came from a strong military tradition as his father had fought in the War of 1812 and his grandfathers had served during the American Revolution. Educated locally in his early years, he was later sent to live with an uncle in Cooperstown, NY so that he could attend a private preparatory school (Cooperstown Classical and Military Academy). While there, Doubleday received training as a surveyor and civil engineer. Throughout his youth, he expressed interests in reading, poetry, art, and mathematics. After two years of private practice, Doubleday received an appointment to the US Military Academy at West Point. Arriving in 1838, his classmates included John Newton, William Rosecrans, John Pope, Daniel H. Hill, George Sykes, James Longstreet, and Lafayette McLaws. Though regarded as a â€Å"diligent and thoughtful student, Doubleday proved an average scholar and he graduated in 1842 ranked 24th in a class of 56. Assigned to the 3rd US Artillery, Doubleday initially served at Fort Johnson (North Carolina) before moving through several assignments in coastal fortifications. Mexican-American War With the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, Doubleday received a transfer west to the 1st US Artillery. Part of Major General Zachary Taylors army in Texas, his unit commenced preparing for the invasion of northeastern Mexico. Doubleday soon marched south and saw action at the hard-fought Battle of Monterrey. Remaining with Taylor the following year, he served at Rinconada Pass during the Battle of Buena Vista. On March 3, 1847, shortly after the battle, Doubleday was promoted to first lieutenant. Returning home, Doubleday married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore in 1852. Two years later, he was ordered to the frontier for service against the Apaches. He completed this assignment in 1855 and received a promotion to captain. Dispatched south, Doubleday served in Florida during the Third Seminole War from 1856-1858 and also helped to map the Everglades as well as modern Miami and Fort Lauderdale. Charleston Fort Sumter In 1858, Doubleday was posted to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, SC. There he endured the growing sectional strife that marked the years immediately before the Civil War and commented, â€Å"Almost every public assemblage was tinctured with treasonable sentiments and toasts against the flag were always warmly applauded.† Doubleday remained at Fort Moultrie until Major Robert Anderson withdrew the garrison to Fort Sumter after South Carolina seceded from the Union in December 1860. On the morning of April 12, 1861, Confederate forces in Charleston opened fire on Fort Sumter. Within the fort, Anderson selected Doubleday to fire the first shot of the Union response. Following the forts surrender, Doubleday returned north and was quickly promoted to major on May 14, 1861. With this came an assignment to the 17th Infantry in Major General Robert Pattersons command in the Shenandoah Valley. In August, he was transferred to Washington where he commanded batteries along the Potomac. On February 3, 1862, he was promoted to brigadier general and placed in command of the Washington defenses. Second Manassas With the formation of Major General John Popes Army of Virginia in the summer of 1862, Doubleday received his first combat command. Leading the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, III Corps, Doubleday played a key role at Brawners Farm during the opening actions of the Second Battle of Bull Run. Though his men were routed the next day, they rallied to cover the retreat of the Union army on August 30, 1862. Transferred to the I Corps, Army of the Potomac with the rest of Brigadier General John P. Hatchs division, Doubleday next saw action at the Battle of South Mountain on September 14. Army of the Potomac When Hatch was wounded, Doubleday took command of the division. Retaining command of the division, he led them at the Battle of Antietam three days later. Fighting in the West Woods and Cornfield, Doubledays men held the right flank of the Union army. Recognized for his superior performance at Antietam, Doubleday was brevetted to lieutenant colonel in the Regular Army. On November 29, 1862, he was promoted to major general. At the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, Doubledays division was held in reserve and avoided taking part in the Union defeat. In the winter of 1863, I Corps was reorganized and Doubleday was shifted to command the 3rd Division. He served in this role at the Battle of Chancellorsville that May, but his men saw little action. As Lees army moved north in June, Major General John Reynolds’ I Corps led the pursuit. Arriving in Gettysburg on July 1, Reynolds moved to deploy his men in support of Brigadier General John Bufords cavalry. While directing his men, Reynolds was shot and killed. Command of the corps devolved on Doubleday. Racing forward, he completed the deployment and guided the corps through the opening stages of the battle. Gettysburg Positioned northwest of the town, Doubledays men were badly outnumbered by the approaching Confederate army. Fighting valiantly, I Corps held their position for five hours and was only forced to retreat after XI Corps collapsed on their right. Outnumbered 16,000 to 9,500, Doubledays men inflicted 35-60% casualties on seven of the ten Confederate brigades that attacked them. Falling back to Cemetery Hill, the remains of I Corps held their position for the remainder of the battle. On July 2, the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Major General George Meade, replaced Doubleday as commander of I Corps with the more junior Newton. This was largely the result of a false report submitted by the XI Corps commander, Major General Oliver O. Howard, stating that I Corps broke first. It was fostered by a long-running dislike of Doubleday, whom he believed indecisive, which went back to South Mountain. Returning to his division, Doubleday was wounded in the neck later in the day. After the battle, Doubleday officially requested that he be given command of I Corps. When Meade refused, Doubleday departed the army and rode to Washington. Assigned to administrative duties in the city, Doubleday served on courts martial and commanded part of the defenses when Lieutenant General Jubal Early threatened to attack in 1864. While in Washington, Doubleday testified before Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War and criticized Meades conduct at Gettysburg. With the end of hostilities in 1865, Doubleday remained in the army and reverted to his regular rank of lieutenant colonel on August 24, 1865. Promoted to colonel in September 1867, he was given command of the 35th Infantry. Later Life Posted to San Francisco in 1869, to head the recruiting service, he obtained a patent for a cable car railway system and opened the citys first cable car company. In 1871, Doubleday was given command of the African-American 24th Infantry in Texas. After commanding the regiment for two years, he retired from the service. Settling in Mendham, NJ, he became involved with Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott. The founders of the Theosophical Society, they converted Doubleday to the tenets of Theosophy and Spiritualism. When the pair moved to India to continue their studies, Doubleday was named the president of the American chapter. He continued to live in Mendham until his death on January 26, 1893. Doubledays name is most commonly known due to its association with the origins of baseball. While the 1907 Mills Commission Report states that the game was invented by Doubleday at Cooperstown, NY in 1839, subsequent scholarship has proven this unlikely. Despite this, Doubledays name remains deeply linked to the games history.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Poem Analysis Proverbs - 1221 Words

†¢ Proverbs 4:20-23 - My son, attend to my words; incline thine ear unto my sayings. Let them not depart from thine eyes; keep them in the midst of thy heart. For they are life unto those that find them, and health to all their flesh. Above all that thou guardest keep thy heart; for out of it are the issues of life (Proverbs 4, n.d). †¢ Exodus 23:25 – â€Å"And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee (Exodus 23, n.d). †¢ Psalms 91:2-4 – â€Å"I will say of the LORD, [He is] my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him will I trust. Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler, [and] from the noisome pestilence. He shall cover thee with his feathers,†¦show more content†¦In her belief, which mostly stems on how she was raised through the followings of the Hebrew Bible, she expresses that she does not believe Jesus to be the son of God, nor was he birthed by a virgin mother, but most importantly he is not the Messiah in which she read about through the scripture. This does not mean that she does not acknowledge his existence but that she cannot fathom his presence on earth as the chosen Messiah. She then mentioned that she felt bothered by the common misconception that the Jews debunk the theory of Jesus being the Messiah due to the fact that he was poor man. â€Å"How can a lowly carpenter truly be the son of God and our savior?† This is the type of questi on in which she believes that people from the Christian faith think the Jews ask themselves. She stated that in her own personal beliefs, and that she does not speak for other Jews, her Messiah could be the poorest man on earth and it would not bother her. To her, there are many inconsistencies within the Bible and from what she has been taught, that allow her to question and doubt Jesus Christs legacy. She finally discussed that within her community, they still await for God’s chosen Messiah to arrive and until then, she will maintain a strong connection with her faith but also embrace others with theirs. Mr. James R. was then interviewed to share his opinions and views in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How has cinema matured and developed within the last 10 years Free Essays

string(109) " has been proposed to be an extensive cue to depth that is effective on different distances \(Horii, 1992\)\." 1.0INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Definitio Through the century, film technology has grown up and makes miracle in our life, from the first projected black and white movie in 1895 to the 3D movie today. We will write a custom essay sample on How has cinema matured and developed within the last 10 years? or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the film industry, 3D movie has been very popular in recent years and it is almost becomes a need in the market. As 3D film technology is more and more matured, 2D to 3D conversion can be applied to live-action or VFX productions to add 3D depth to standard 2D material. Hence, filmmakers have different options of 3D film making to suite to their own styles and of course it will rely on the market needs as well. This project will look at which production method is better for filmmaker in term of quality, time consumption and cost. 1.2 Scope The extent of this project is to present past and current knowledge of film technology and the development of 3D stereoscopic production. Any business and marketing strategies in film industry will fall outside the scope of the project. Where the current and new 3D film technology is discussed, this report will also outline a critical analysis of each method of live-action shooting in 3D and the process of 2D to 3D conversion. 1.3 Rationale Stereoscopic filmmaking and stereo 3D conversion is an area of film technology that is constantly changing and expanding. Appearing in many forms and guides, many possibilities of production can be found, from the early development stages right through to post production. As more films are produced in 3D, filmmakers will experience a clearer perspective on the impact in time and cost of shooting in 3D relative to 2D. Hardly say that, 3D movie will take longer time to shoot and post produce than a comparable 2D films nevertheless it will cost more in overall. Hence, stereo 3D conversion will be considered due to being cost effective. Ultimately, the decision to shoot in 3D instead of 2D will depend on the investment return from the marketplace, and creative is one of the considerations too. However, affordably priced 3D camera rigs and other equipments are also being developed that will make stereoscopic 3D production accessible to independent producers on limited budgets. This projec t provides important information in 3D film making and post produced. Multimedia technology students with experience in 3D modeling, video production and post production may also benefit from this report. 1.4 Aim The overall aim of the project is to compare and contrast in post production on stereo 3D conversion and live-action stereoscopic images and to define the reason for selecting each method. 1.5 Objectives To develop an in depth understanding of 3D display, stereoscopic images and depth perception. Critically analyse research and explore the process of 2D to 3D conversion and live-action shooting. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages between stereo 3D conversion and live-action shooting. To define which technologies on the way to best achieve a stereo conversion. 1.6 Brief History of 3D Here is the highlight of the history of 3D. In 1838, Sir Charles Wheatstone first explained â€Å"stereopsis† – the perception of depth. In 1851, Queen Victoria saw a â€Å"stereoscope† still image, 3D became all the rage. Around 1890, first stereo film camera introduced. Circa 1915, first red blue â€Å"anaglyph† movie was shown to broad audiences. In 1953, 45 films were released in 3D includes Kiss Me Kate, House of Wax, Creature from the Black Lagoon and more. In 1970’s, new capture and projection technologies were born but unlikely success due to eyestrain for the audience. Jaws 3D is one of the movie which projected in the cinema. Late 1990’s, IMAX begins projecting in 3D In 2005, Hollywood studios’ Digital Cinema Initiative, aided by Entertainment Technology Centre’s Digital Cinema Lab, a specification for a standard digital cinema package was created. In 2009, more than two out of ten movie screens are equipped for digital 3D In 2011, 3D home experiences no longer a myth. 2.0REVIEW OF EXISTING KNOWLEDGE 2.1 Introduction The review on this report provides a rich source of knowledge about depth perception, stereoscopic images, and 3D display that can be applied to the stereoscopic image production which will be discussed on chapter four. To understand how better to present information on 3D stereoscopic, a comprehensive understanding of depth perception is necessary. In addition, knowledge of the human visual system uses as a guide on stereoscopic viewing will be covered in this section. 2.2 Stereo Vision in the Human Visual System The visual system consist retina, vitreous, iris, lens, pupil, cornea, optic disk and optic nerve. Each component of the human eye has a role that requires to work together with the brain, and the perceptive needs of the human mind. The human visual system has a physical configuration that able to build a 3D model of the world from two separate flat images taken in by the eyes. In the real world each eye sees a slightly different view of the world due to human beings have horizontally separated eyes. 2.2.1 Depth Perception Depth can be divided into binocular depth cues that image received by both eyes, and monocular depth cues that image received by just single eye. Studies with random-dot stereogram have shown that the binocular and monocular depth cues are independently perceived (Julesz, 1971). Monocular Depth Cues At longer distances, pictorial cues such as textures, size, colours, shadows and perspective lines are more important than the binocular cues. Failure to present credible pictorial cues might cause undesirable effects and thus destroy the sensation of depth (Boev Hollosi, 2008). Texture in sufficiently symmetrical or constant patterns is a good cue to depth. Shadows work as a depth cue by indicating the size, shape, orientation and parallax of different objects. The functioning of scale as a cue to depth relies on the fact that the sizes of familiar objects are known. Focal depth has been proposed to be an extensive cue to depth that is effective on different distances (Horii, 1992). You read "How has cinema matured and developed within the last 10 years?" in category "Essay examples" A person with one blind eye has limited ability to judge distance and depth. However, they able to extract 3D information from a single 2D view through the basis depth assessment as below: Scale – through the evaluation of the relative size of objects. Superposition – from observing one object partially obscuring another. Shadow – through examining the shape of an object’s shadow. Focus – through changing focus on the eye. Perspective – through observing that parallel features converge as the distance increases. The ability to judge distance can be developed with experiences; however, it can never reach the same degree that can be obtained with binocular vision (Westone Resource, 2002). Binocular Depth Cues Figure 1 shows how geometry of binocular vision gives rise to slightly different images in two eyes. If the two eyes are fixating on a point P, then the images cast by P fall at the centre of the fovea in each eye. Now consider a second point Q. If the images of Q fell five degrees away from the fovea in both eyes we should say that Q stimulated corresponding points in the two eyes, and that Q had zero disparity. If instead the image was located 6 degrees away from the fovea in one eye but 5 degrees away in the other, we should say that Q stimulated disparate or no corresponding points and that Q produced a disparity of 1 degree. In general, if Q’s image falls x degrees from the fovea in the left eye and y degrees from the fovea in the right eye than the binocular disparity is (x – y), measured in degrees of visual angle. The amount of disparity depends on the physical depth (d) of Q relative to the fixation point P. In fact, disparity is approximately proportional to t his depth difference divided by the square of the viewing distance (v). Thus disparity increases with the amount of depth, but decreases rapidly with increasing viewing distance (Chalmers Lo, 2003) Figure 1. Geometry of binocular vision Schreer (2005) stated that human eyes are separated from each other on average by approximately 63mm. Beyond a distance of 400 metres the change in parallactic angle becomes so small that depth perception cannot be discerned. The smallest difference in parallactic angle which can be interpreted as an impression of depth is an indication of our stereoscopic acuity (Westone Resource, 2002). 2.3 Stereoscopic Depth Cues Stereoscopic depth cues are a kind of motion parallax cues. Human is using two eyes as two points of view, and then make comparisons between these two views. Retinal disparities can be defined as discrepancies between two images. Two pictures to be processed together with specialized neurons in the visual cortex looking for these disparities, hence more information, more accurately can be extracted from motion parallaxes. Mostly horizontal parallaxes, occlusions revelations, some shape changes, and convergence cues. One could rightfully argue that there is no stereoscopic depth cue that is not a motion cue (Mendiburu, 2009). Horizontal Parallax Human brain will extracts and computes the size of the disparities to assess the distance of the objects when looking at a stereoscopic image. Occlusion Revelations Occlusion occurs when objects overlap each other. Occlusions are the most powerful depth cues. In monoscope, some parts of the background object are hidden. In stereoscopy, there is a thin stripe of the background object that is seen by only one eye. This additional texture is a major cue for the brain to reconstruct a scene, to the point that occlusion will supersede any other cue, and your brain will twist reality in every direction to make it work (Mendiburu, 2009). Shape Change In stereoscopy, there’s an additional factor. The distance between human eyes is fixed at an average of 2.5 inches; therefore, the amount of â€Å"side view† for per eye is the function of an object’s size and distance. A dice you hold in your hand will reveal more of its sides than one on the other end of a craps table. And a building may not let you see its sides because it’s more that 2.5 inches wide. If you see more or less of an object, and you can locate it in the distance or have a reference shape to compare it to, then you’ll have enough information to infer the missing information and assess its actual size. Most of the time, this will tell you the size and distance. When shooting in 3D, filmmaker will play with the camera’s interocular distance. This will create size effects on objects, landscapes, and actors, and make them feel giant or small (Mendiburu, 2009). Convergence, Parallax, and Depth Parallax is the relative position of an object’s image in a set of pictures. When the parallax value of the pair of images of an object is negative, the left-eye image of the object is seen on the screen at a position that lies to the right of its right-eye image. When a viewer converge the image pair, the 3D object seems to be located in front of the screen plane. When the parallax value of the image pair is positive, the left-eye image of the object is seen on the screen at a position that lies to the left of its right-eye image. When a viewer converge the image pair, the 3D object seems to be located behind the screen plane. When the parallax value is zero, the two images of the object overlap at the screen plane. In this circumstance the object seems to the viewer to be located on the screen plane. When a viewer’s eyes are focused on the screen and converged on an object that appears to be in front of the screen (i.e. an object with negative parallax), the viewerâ⠂¬â„¢s left and right eyes cross. And when a viewer’s eyes are focused on the plane of the screen and converged on an object that appears to be on or beyond the screen (i.e. an object with zero or positive parallax), the viewer’s eyes remain uncrossed. Because crossing the eyes can cause physical discomfort, filmmakers are often cautious about using excessive negative parallax, choosing instead to limit the frequency of use of the effect and the degree to which objects are allowed to intrude into the viewer’s space (Clark, 2010). See figure 2 for a clearer picture. Figure 2. Parallax (Autodesk, 2008) 2.4 3D Display Stereoscopic display efficiently presents a left eye image to the left eye that is isolated from a right eye image that is presented to the right eye. This allows the visual system to merge the two images resulting in the perception of depth, or stereopsis. In current market, there are several methods to create stereoscopic visualization and the most common approaches used today are summarized on next page. Each one has advantage and disadvantage that should be considered by the user. StereoMirror Features:the light path from two polarized LCD monitors is combined using a 50/50 beamsplitter that transmits light from one display and reflects light from the other; find additional information here. Glasses: passive, linearly polarized Pros: high brightness, full stereo resolution, excellent color, no flicker, best stereo image quality, very comfortable, low stereo crosstalk, continuous image Cons:form factor, requires two input signals 3D Vision Features:left and right images are displayed frame sequentially with black frame insertion between, an emitter synchronizes glasses so that the left eye is blocked when a right image is shown and the right eye is blocked when a left image is shown Glasses: NVIDIA 3D Vision active shutter glasses Pros: full stereo resolution, good color, low stereo crosstalk, low cost Cons:low brightness, mild flicker Other Active Glasses Features:left and right images are displayed frame sequentially, an emitter synchronizes glasses so that the left eye is blocked when a right image is shown and the right eye is blocked when a left image is shown Glasses: active shutter glasses Pros: full stereo resolution, good color, low cost Cons:low brightness, mild to significant flicker, mild stereo crosstalk Anaglyph Features:stereo paired images are colored with red/blue or red/green tint for the left eye/right eye image Glasses: red/blue or red/green tint passive glasses Pros: can be used on any color display (even paper), low cost Cons:very high stereo crosstalk, loss of most color information Patterned Polarizer Features:odd display rows are circularly polarized in the opposite direction as all the even display rows, left/right images are split to either the even or odd rows Glasses: passive circularly polarized Pros: continuous image, comfortable Cons:half resolution, limited vertical viewing angle, stereo crosstalk increases with viewing angle Head Mounted Display (HMD) Features:a display in front of the left eye shows the left image and a second display in front of the right eye shows the right image Glasses: electronic glasses with two displays and appropriate optics Pros: zero stereo crosstalk, private view Cons:heavier glasses, eliminates view of surrounding, not multi-user, limited display technology Dual Panel Features:a pair of LCD panels are laminated and controlled with a custom algorithm that allows one panel to control the pixel intensity and the other to control polarization distribution Glasses: passive polarized glasses Pros: full stereo resolution, simultaneous left/right image displayed Cons:low brightness through two panels, complex driving scheme, viewing angle restrictions Autostereo Features:Uses LCD with an added optical element (either lenticular lens or parallax barrier) to create a combined left eye/right eye presentation of the image on the screen Glasses: no glasses required Pros: glasses free, multiple viewing zones are possible Cons:resolution reduced by half or more, high stereo crosstalk, complex content development 2.4.1 REAL D Technology The REAL D 3D theatrical system delivers a high quality 3D movie experience to the viewer. The system is designed to operate on existing digital cinema systems, which include a 3D enabled server and a DLP Cinemaâ„ ¢ projector (Cowan, 2007). 3.0 METHODOLOGY In order to fully obtain the research required and to gather the accrued information to achieve the aim and objectives of the project, the research method is mainly based on secondary research. However, primary research could be considered as part of the method on this project. 3.1 Primary Research Semi-structured interviewing is perhaps the most common type of interview used in qualitative social research. In this type of interview, some specific information which can be compared and contrasted with information gained in other interviews and also in other sources. (Dawson, 2006) The using of questionnaires is important for a project. In this project, a combination of both open and closed questions can consider to be taken. That way, it is possible to find out how many people have good or bad experience with 3D movies and what public think about 3D movies compare with 2D movies on the same form. Below are advantages and disadvantages of interviews. Advantages: Very useful in obtaining detailed information Obtaining a realistic picture of the way of people view Able to control the search design to fit the project needs Focus on specific subjects Disadvantages: Can be costly Time consuming, by the time the research is complete it may be out of date May not get response if emails or direct mailing are used 3.2 Secondary Research Sharp (2002) defined that secondary data is data collected by others and published in some from that is fairly readily accessible. In order to fully understand the development of live action and post produced stereoscopic, and its current role within the industry, this process requires gathering general information found through secondary data. The secondary research was divided into three parts: The principles of 3D stereoscopic, 3D display, and 3D glasses. The process of 3D stereo conversion. Stereoscopic filmmaking – Live-action shooting in 3D. In the first part, a subjective research was done by collecting the information of how human able to see 3D view both in the real world and on the screen through a viewing system. In the second part, Advantages and Disadvantages of the secondary research method Books and journals are likely to be the major source of the secondary data. Furthermore, they are extremely helpful for providing an accurate and in depth information on this project. However finding information on a specific subject is one of the challenges in this project unless there is a journal that focuses on it in its entirety. Although, some information that found from books may be out of date, yet, the history and the concept of 3D is never change. Hence, books consider one of the important sources for this project. Specialist publication such as 3D world and Post are very useful and can be found in the learning centre. The data from the internet is a simple approach to rapidly find information relevant to the project. Especially for this project is considered very useful, considering the lack of any out of date information that’s books have provided. However it’s hard to determine what information is valid on the internet unless the information is clearly referenced such as entertainment technology center website and whitepaper. 3.3 Comparison of the Chosen Methodology 4.0 REFERENCES Lo, C. and Chalmers, A., 2003. Stereo Vision for Computer Graphics, ACM Inc, pp. 110. Julesz, B., 1971. Foundations of cyclopean perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Boev, A., Hollosi, D., and Gotchev, A., 2008. Classification of stereoscopic artefacts, tech. rep., Mobile3DTV Project. WestOne, n.d. ‘Resources – Principles of 3D Stereoscopy’. [online] Date accessed: 17/01/2011 Schreer, O., Kauff, P., and Sikora, T., eds., 2005. 3D video communication. Wiley. Mendiburu, B., 2009. 3D Movie Making. Oxford: Elsevier Inc. B. Clark, 2010. ‘3D Production and Post’. [online] Date assessed: 25/10/2010 Dr. Dawson, C., 2006. A Practical Guide to Research Methods. Oxford: How To Books Ltd Sharp, John A., 2002. The Management of a Student Research Project. Burlington: Gower Publishing Ltd 5.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY Wandell, B., 1995. Foundations of vision. Sunderland, MA, US: Sinauer Associates. How to cite How has cinema matured and developed within the last 10 years?, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Awareness of Level Iv Students of Vmuf on Rh Bill free essay sample

While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is great debate on its key proposal that the Philippine government and the private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as  condoms,  birth control pills  (BCPs) and  IUDs, as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers. However, the bill is controversial, as it is being opposed by concerned citizens, especially the pro-life, pro-family and pro-God groups, regardless of creed or religion. Debates and rallies supporting and opposing the bills have been happening nationwide. Background of the Study The first time the Reproductive Health Bill was proposed in 1998. During the present 15th Congress, the RH Bills filed are those authored by House Minority Leader Edcel Lagman of Albay, HB 96; Iloilo Rep. Dale Bernard Tuddao, HB 101, Akbayan Representatives Kaka Bag-ao amp; Walden Bello; HB 513, Muntinlupa Representative Rodolfo Biazon, HB 1160, Iloilo Representative Augusto Syjuco, HB 1520, Gabriela Rep. Luzviminda Ilagan. In the Senate, Sen. Miriam Defensor-Santiago  has filed her own version of the RH bill which, she says, will be part of the country’s commitment to international covenants. On 31 January 2011, the House of Representatives Committee on Population and Family Relations voted to consolidate all House versions of the bill, which is entitled  An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population Development and for Other Purposes. One of the main concerns of the bill, according to the Explanatory Note, is that the population of the Philippines makes it â€Å"the 12th most populous nation in the world today†, that the Filipino women’s fertility rate is â€Å"at the upper bracket of 206 countries. † It states that studies and surveys â€Å"show that the Filipinos are responsive to having smaller-sized families through free choice of family planning methods. † It also refers to studies which â€Å"show that rapid population growth exacerbates poverty while poverty spawns rapid population growth. And so it aims for improved quality of life through a â€Å"consistent and intelligible national population policy. † As policy it states that the State guarantees universal access to medically-safe, legal, affordable, effective and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies and relevant information and education thereon even as it prioritizes the needs of wom en and children, among other underprivileged sectors. The bill is highly divisive, with experts, academics, religious institutions, and major political figures supporting and opposing it, often criticizing the government and each other in the process. The Roman Catholic Church expresses its opposition against the bill on many counts, most especially the procurement and distribution of family planning supplies for the whole country, when the available evidence from peer reviewed medical journals supports the hypothesis that when ovulation and fertilization occur in women taking oral contraceptives (OCs) or using intrauterine devices (IUD), post-fertilization effects are operative on occasion to prevent clinically recognized pregnancy. Hormonal contraceptives and/or IUDs directly affect the endometrium. These effects have been presumed to render the endometrium relatively inhospitable to implantation or to the maintenance of the pre-embryo or embryo prior to clinically recognized pregnancy. These make pills and IUDS abortifacient. Pro-life groups, and many professionals in the medical and nursing fields, believe that physicians and policy makers should understand and respect the beliefs of patients who consider human life to be present and valuable from the moment of fertilization. Patients should be made fully aware of this information so that they can consent to or refuse the use of artificial contraceptives. Furthermore, the position of the Catholic Church and the pro-life groups does not mean that they espouse the attitude of natalism at all costs, as if the number of children, in itself, were the unmistakable sign of authentic Christian matrimonial life. The sexual act, properly exercised within marriage only, is ordained primarily to the propagation of life. If there are reasonable motives for spacing births, such as serious medical conditions in the mother, or extreme poverty, then the Catholic Church teaches that married couples may take advantage of the natural cycles of the reproductive system and use their marriage precisely those times that are infertile (natural family planning). Other aspects of the bill being contested by concerned citizens include the classification of family planning supplies as essential medicines when their safety/toxicity profile and legal permissibility are questionable. At the same time, more importance should be given to the prevalent diseases, the top ten leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines, namely, infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis. Financial resources allotted by foreign donors to assist the Philippine government programs could actually be better spent towards pursuing health programs targeting communicable diseases than purchasing artificial contraceptives. Very pertinent to the debate about reproduction rights is the right to life. The Philippine Constitution says that the State â€Å"shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception†. If artificial contraceptives are medically proven to induce abortion as one of their mechanisms of action, then procurement and distribution of such family planning supplies are unconstitutional and illegal. Conceptual Framework A  bill  is a proposed law under consideration by a  legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the  executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an  act  or a  statute. Bills are originated exclusively in the House of Representatives but the Senate may propose also. The  Reproductive Health Bill, informally known as the  RH Bill, are  proposed laws  in the  Republic of the Philippines  aiming to guarantee universal access to methods of  contraception, fertility control,  sexual education, and maternal care. The study lays flow of the investigation based on the concept that a bill should be known by most people, especially students, before it becomes a law. The paradigmatic presentation follows input – process – output. Figure 1 shows three blocks representing the independent and dependent variables. The first block represents the input variables consist of the profile of subjects under investigation such as their gender, course and personal preference; and their degree of awareness on the Reproductive Health Bill. The second block represents the process used which is the Descriptive Survey Method. The third block represents the output variable which contains the awareness of level IV students of VMUF on the RH Bill. Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study Statement of the Problem This study seeks to determine the awareness of level IV students of VMUF on the Reproductive Health Bill. Specifically, this study ought to answer the following problems; 1. What is the profile of the respondent of the study as to: 2. 1 Gender 2. 2 Course 2. 3 Personal preference (Agree or disagree to RH Bill) 2. What is the degree of awareness of level IV students of VMUF on the RH Bill? Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study deals with the awareness of students of Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation on the Reproductive Health Bill. The respondents of the study are those students enrolled from different colleges of the university under the fourth year level during the first semester, Academic Year 2012-2013. These are the one hundred students from ten selected colleges of the university. Significance of the Study The findings of this study entitled â€Å"Awareness of Level IV Students of Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation on the Reproductive Health Bill†, endeavors to benefit the following: The University – The result of this study will serve as guide to gather knowledge on the awareness of the students on the Reproductive Health Bill for them to decide if they should impose the facts about the bill. The students – Students as well as the general public can understand the coverage and limitations of the RH Bill and to gain knowledge on how they would adjust with their beliefs about the bill. The future researchers – this material will serve as a reference that could help future researchers collect data produced within this duration. The lawmakers – findings of this study could influence the lawmakers to formulate provisions before the bill is passed. Definition of Terms The following terms were defined operationally for clarity and understanding within the context of this study. Adolescent sexuality refers to, among others, the reproductive system, gender identity, values and beliefs, emotions, relationships and sexual behavior at adolescence. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) refers to a condition characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms, caused by human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which attacks and weakens the body’s immune system, making the afflicted individual susceptible to other life-threatening infections. Bill – is a proposed law under consideration by a  legislature. Descriptive Survey Method describes Data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied by using survey. Demographic Profile the Characteristics of a human population or part of it. In this study, it refers to the gender and course of the respondents. Family planning refers to a program which enables couples, individuals and women to decide freely and responsible the number and spacing of their children, acquire relevant information on reproductive health care, services and supplies and have access to a full range of safe, legal, affordable, effective natural and modern methods of limiting and spacing pregnancy.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Why Some Companies Avoid Export Essay Sample free essay sample

Introduction More and more companies today are traping their hopes of increasing gross revenues by exporting their goods and services to foreign markets. Exporting goods non merely provides new markets for the bing merchandises but if chosen right they besides provides a ready market for goods that don’t have great demand in the domestic market. Apart from concern grounds exporting goods and services can be truly moneymaking as most authorities provides inducements to the companies that export their merchandises in the foreign markets and earn cherished foreign exchange. Advantages of Exporting Goods and Services With all the benefits. why non more and more companies start exporting their goods and services. This paper is aimed to analyse all the factors in item which prompt companies non to export their goods and services to foreign markets. These factors can be categorized into five sections – Business Practices and Internal Reasons First we will seek to analyse the internal factors which stop a company from exporting goods and services to the foreign markets. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Some Companies Avoid Export Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lack of Management Expertise Most companies fail to travel abroad with their merchandises and services because they believe that they don’t have managerial capablenesss to manage the excess operational complications( Andy Hines. 2003 ). This insecurity or pure deficiency of trust in managerial abilities prevents them non merely from increasing their gross revenues but besides from taking advantages of the graduated table of economic systems with in the organisation. Second the company has incur extra administrative to pull off the turning concern. Changes in Organizational Structure and Business Model The biggest barrier which prevents a company from embarking abroad is the fright of changing the present organisational construction and concern theoretical account. Companies which normally thrive in export markets are the one which able to retroflex their domestic concern theoretical account in export market as they have gained tremendous sum of expertness in utilizing those policies and concern tools. If there is a demand to putter with that so most companies are disbelieving and ready to give up their export aspirations.( Martha Lagace. 2003 ) It is merely for Large Companies Most little and average size companies believe that exporting goods is merely the large companies sphere as they merely have capablenesss of perpetrating the needed fiscal resources and absorbing the comparative hazards. This premise stops many a little and average sized companies to halt researching foreign markets. On the other manus the contrary is true. most large companies are public companies with a blade hanging over to present consequences every one-fourth. The demands from assorted stakeholders prevent much direction to foster a foreign market and put in the future potencies of that market. Export Market is merely for Manufacturers This is one of the most outstanding myths in concern that export markets are merely for those makers who have a merchandise to sell. Most states statute law has non even recognized merchandising services. But in the digital age state of affairs has varied a batch. today service exports are catching up with merchandises exports in the international markets. In the South-east Asiatic part we are witnessing a great displacement in this respect. Philippines. a conspicuously fabricating economic system is deriving land in exporting services. The growing of outsourcing industry in Philippines is 3rd merely to Ireland and India. It is estimated that this sector of the international concern will turn much faster than any other in approaching old ages.( David Williamson. 2005 ) Greater Marketing Budget As the companies have to make the difficult work once more of making trade name consciousness among the clients of new market and edifice trade name equity it has to pass more than what it is passing in the domestic market. The increasing outgo can ensue the bottom line of the company in the short clip and may impact the public presentation of the company on stock exchange. Another hard undertaking in marketing the merchandises globally is positioning the merchandise harmonizing to specific market esthesias. Extra Production Expenses It is really rare that companies able to export the same merchandise they are selling in the domestic market because each market is different in its ain manner. Most companies have to change their bundles or boxing stuff to perforate in new markets. For illustration a green colour packaging is considered environmentally friendly in western societies. viridity is the holy colour in Islamic society but it is the colour of mourning in Taiwan. So a company which is so successfully selling its merchandise in Middle East and Europe has to alter its packaging to accommodate to Taiwan local colour consideration. Another fluctuation which most companies find hard to set is sizes of their merchandises. Variation in sizes agencies excess production cost plus duplicating the stock list direction. Huge disbursals on Market Research As embarking into the foreign market is ever a 50 – 50 opportunity and companies want to step the H2O carefully. they normally have to engage high cost selling research companies. Longer Payment Cycles In domestic markets companies are used to holding a shorter hard currency rhythm but in the international market as the payment method is complicated. the hard currency rhythm becomes a spot longer and companies who are to a great extent dependent upon faster hard currency flow turnovers are non willing to come in into the foreign markets. Market Structure Strong Domestic Market One of the major grounds why companies try non to export their merchandises and services is holding a strong and vivacious domestic market. American companies over the last decennary has easy and bit by bit focused on domestic market comparison to the decennary before because the American economic system saw a decennary of roar which put money in clients pocket to pass. On the other manus Nipponese companies have to look outward because their domestic demand is really limited after the World War II. Companies like Sony. Toyota truly flourished in those markets and now they have more gross coming out from outside Japan than from the domestic market. Similarly companies from Mexico started exporting in large manner a decennary ago one time United States opened its boundary line for Mexican imports under NAFTA. ( James Heskett. 2000 ) More late the companies from Eastern European states have flourished after fall ining the European Union and acquiring the chance to export their goods and services to flush economic systems of Western Europe. Highly Competitive International Market Highly competitory international market can move as an anti-catalyst for houses desiring to come in the export markets. If a Singapore based company enters a new market it has to confront competition from three sides – local companies. other Singapore based companies and competition from other states. For illustration if Honda has to come in the German market than it has to confront competition from Germany based companies like BMW and Mercedes. from Nipponese rivals like Toyota and Nissan and from other foreign participants like General Motors and Ford from United States. Lack of Peers in the Domestic Market Normally exports try to come in into the markets in which other participants from the same industry had successful experience. When a state spots possible in new markets it sometimes inhibits to come in the market as it is unsure about the concern patterns and other legal and economic processs in that state. Technological Differences In a recent enterprise to force American merchandises in Indian market. the authorities of United States asked Indian authorities to let the import of Harley-Davidson motorcycles in India. Even with governmental influence Harley Davidson is non in place as away now to export to India as the environmental norms in India are different than the one nowadays in America. Harley – Davidson have to upgrades it engineering to Euro III norms to able to sell its motorcycles in India. ( Traci Purdum. 2006 ) Product Life Cycle Difference Similarly there can be differences in the merchandise life rhythm of a merchandise in similar markets. For illustration when Motorola foremost launched its merchandise in Singapore. it showed the same advertizement that was running in United States – a adult male hammering his phone to demo the lastingness of the merchandise. The advertizement couldn’t able to bring forth any enthusiasm as most people in Singapore find it useless. Why? To most people in Singapore. the nomadic phone was luxury point and they keep it carefully instead than an mean American who freely uses it and therefore holding a good chance of dropping it. Lack of exporting information Even though state of affairs has improved a batch with the coming of cyberspace but jobs still persist with information sing exports of goods( Debora L. Spar. 2001 ) .In pre cyberspace yearss the lone beginnings of happening a purchaser outside were Embassy of that peculiar state and a mention from fellow exporter. Today the state of affairs has immensely transformed. an interested exporter can easy happen a directory of importers interested in his merchandises online. Another signifier of information blank. which use to be portion and package of international market were duties on the goods imported by the several state. In the last decennary or so though generalisation of duties has taken topographic point across the universe due to World Trade Organization but many infinites are still left to be filled. Duties and responsibilities information is vitally critical as they could find the monetary value fight of a peculiar merchandise in that market. Economic Environment A country’s economic environment includes both the macro economic factors and micro economic factors. It is a amount of country’s beginnings of domestic support and the allotment of resources. As non all of the world’s economic systems operate at same efficiency degree so there are natural fluctuation in foreign market comparison to domestic economic scenario. Few barometers to estimate the economic wellness of the economic system are important and they can act upon the company’s determination to come in the market or non. Micro Environment Competitive border of the economic system is one of the critical factors in finding the export market. for illustration China has the largest population on the planet so it’s natural that it has immense market for garments and dresss. Apparel exporter from Meleagris gallopavo is interested in tapping the market and starts his market research. After research he came to cognize that China is besides the biggest exporter of garments across the universe and there is small or less chance nowadays in China for garment exporters. Both the macro economic factors and micro economic factors make up the economic environment of the export market. While it may look comparatively easy to nail the current competition in the international market. analysis of competition in the hereafter if really hard because you neer know which companies from where all of a sudden becomes interested in the possible market you are eyeing for. This uncertainness of international market thwarts off many of the possible exporters The Legal and Political Environment The following biggest hurdlings which the exporters faced are the political and judiciary system of assorted export markets. Each state has its ain regulations and ordinance sing concern in their ain state and exporter has to follow the jurisprudence of the land. Form of Government What signifier of authorities is governing the state – is it democratic authorities. is it socialist authorities. is it runs by a dictator. the company foremost has to measure the political clime of the state. Each company has an internal civilization which determines what kind of political construction they deal with best. For illustration some companies are comfy negociating with dictators while other with higher moral duty towards its clients doesn’t enter into those markets. The clear illustration is the Gallic and Russian companies which has immense oil trades with Saddam even though he was a military dictator. Strength of Judiciary Strength of bench can besides find whether a company should come in a foreign market or non. Sometime or other an export company do acquire entangled in legal process so the company has to measure whether the job will be sorted out or non or how fast it can be sorted out and what kind of penalties are at that place in that peculiar state. For illustration Microsoft has launched its XBOX in all the major markets of the universe last twelvemonth but decided non to establish it in Indian market. The ground given by Microsoft was that the jurisprudence to command buccaneering and right of first publication violation is really low in the state so it can’t hazard of fring gross in other markets due to buccaneering from India. Language and Cultural Factors What truly make international markets. are different civilizations across states. Culture influences every facet of company’s enterprise to come in foreign markets. A company has to do determinations based on its prospective clients and clients action are shaped by their life styles and behaviour forms as they stem from their society’s civilization. Thus the merchandises people purchase. the properties they value in those merchandises. the sentiment they accepts are all cultural based picks( Judith A. Ross. 1999 ). For illustration flag wave is really common in United States and it is really easy to happen flag on assorted merchandises at that place but in Germany it is about the opposite. National flag wave is non an activity of joke in Germany so people don’t frequently put that on merchandises. Similarly many of the autos which are so enthusiastically targeted to adult females in the western markets can’t be promoted in Saudi Arabia as autos for adult females as driving for adult females is non acceptable in Saudi society. These differences and uncertainness are explained as psychic distance construct. The psychic distance is measured as the difference between the place state and export market. The construct suggests that the more the similarities between the place market and export market. the greater the chance of a company wining in the foreign market. Decision Although it is easy to categorise a country’s environment into political. socio-cultural and economic facets but they overlap each other and the true nature of the exact act uponing power of all these factors is difficult to quantify. In international markets competition is non merely provided by already established participants but besides skulking in side from hundred and 1000s of companies looking for new chances to turn. The company does hold control over the concern patterns and internal factors but it exerts less or no control over factors like political. cultural and economic environment of the company. We have analyzed how organisational and managerial features along with cultural and political factors can all act upon a company’s determination to come in foreign markets. The combination of all these factors provides us a wide list of jobs an exporter can confront in international markets. All an intelligent direction can make is to be after in front before come ining a market and construction the company to confront the hereafter challenges. Bibliography Andy Hines. 2003. An audit for organisational futurists: 10 inquiries every organisational futurist should be able to reply. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. managementfirst. com/strategy/articles/futurists. php [ accessed July 28. 2006 ] Anon. 2005. Potential Disadvantages of Exporting ( Pitfalls of Exporting ) . [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. witiger. com/internationalbusiness/disadvantages. htm [ accessed July 26. 2006 ] Anon 2. 2004. Developing an Export Strategy. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. unzco. com/basicguide/c4. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 25. 2006 ] David Williamson. July 15. 2005. About a 3rd of little concerns export goods or services. chiefly to Europe. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //icwales. icnetwork. co. uk/0300business/0100news/tm_objectid=17332199 A ; method=full A ; siteid=50082 A ; headline=nearly-a-third-of-small-businesses-export-goods-or-services–mainly-to-europe-name_page. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 22. 2006 ] Debora L. Spar. 2001. Why the Internet Doesn’t Change Everything. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //hbswk. hemoglobin. edu/item/2515. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 12. 2006 ] James Aisner. 1999. Porter’s Perspective: Competing in the Global Economy. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //hbswk. hemoglobin. edu/item/2863. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 25. 2006 ] James Heskett. 2000. What Lies Beyond NAFTA? . [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //clem. mscd. edu/~steinhas/managing_diversity. htm [ accessed July 26. 2006 ] James Heskett. 2006. Has Globalization Reached Its Peak? . [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //hbswk. hemoglobin. edu/item/5283. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 28. 2006 ] Judith A. Ross. 1999. Value Judgments: Business Ethical motives Across Borders. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //hbswk. hemoglobin. edu/item/0086. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 27. 2006 ] [ electronic mail protected ]/*. 2006. In the Current Round of Global Trade Talks. Brazil Aims for Center Stage. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //knowledge. Wharton. upenn. edu/article. cfm? articleid=1337 [ accessed July 24. 2006 ] [ electronic mail protected ]/*. 2005. Rules to Remember for Latin American Firms Seeking Toeholds in the U. S. Market. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //knowledge. Wharton. upenn. edu/article. cfm? articleid=1115 [ accessed July 12. 2006 ] Managementfirst. com. 2006. An interview with Mijnd Huijser. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. managementfirst. com/management_styles/interviews/huijser. php? PHPSESSID=b8e52146e674816998a930fd2e174725 [ accessed July 27. 2006 ] Martha Lagace. 2003. Stuck in Gear: Why Managers Don’t Act. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //hbswk. hemoglobin. edu/item/3501. hypertext markup language [ accessed July 27. 2006 ] Traci Purdum. 2006. Harley-Davidson Inc. : Global Road Trips. Training Programs Prove Profitable. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. industryweek. com/ReadArticle. aspx? ArticleID=12349 A ; SectionID=5 [ accessed July 21. 2006 ] Vern Terpstra. 2001. The millenary and international selling. [ on-line ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www. managementfirst. com/marketing/articles/millenium. php [ accessed July 25. 2006 ]

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Meteors and Comets Essays

Meteors and Comets Essays Meteors and Comets Essay Meteors and Comets Essay Meteors and Comets My topic for this book report is meteors and comets. In fact that is also the title of my book where I got this information from. The author of my book is Gregory L. Vogt. Three main facts that I have learned are when meteors travel through space they are no longer called meteors, they are now called meteoroids. How meteoroids are formed, and how scientists believe that comets are very old. I chose this topic because meteors and comets have always interested me, and because of Halleys Comet. Many people ask and think, why are meteors called meteoroids when they travel through space if they are the same thing? Its also the same thing as saying meteoroids that fall into Earths atmosphere are called meteors. The atmosphere is the layer of gasses that surrounds Earth. I wonder if the gasses ever changed anything. As in the shape, speed or heat. Some people call them rocks from the sky! Meteors are formed in two ways. Many come from asteroids. Others come from comets. Asteroids are large chunks of space rock. They are also called minor planets. Some meteoroids are the size of a piece of sand. Some can be as big as a house! Comets almost totally melt away after many orbits. But dust and grains from the comet keep moving around the sun. After the dust and grains fall into Earths atmosphere are meteors. So one part of why scientists think comets are very old is if one comets have orbited many times then it has to be old the other part is how they think comets ate pieces left from when the solar system began. This probably happened billion of years ago. Thats why scientists think that comets are very old! In conclusion these are some parts that I found interesting in my book. Other parts that I found interesting were how some people who lived long ago were afraid of comets, or when a meteor lands on Earth its called a meteorite. This was what I thought of my book.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Development Essay

Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Development - Essay Example No consideration has been given to the impact of business practices on the environment. This has resulted into an increase in the global warming, and the natural resources reserves are diminishing all over the world. As people learned more and more about these facts owing to the immense universal rise in the literacy rate since the past few years, they have developed a sense of responsibility towards the environment. Ethics and ethical concepts like corporate social responsibility were never given as much importance as they are valued in the contemporary age. There has been a general discouragement and disliking for environment ruining businesses. As a result of this, modern day entrepreneurs face additional challenge of having to comply with the ethical standards in order to gain competitive advantage over their contemporaries in the market. Business ethics is a concept that is getting increasingly prominent in the current market scenario. It is a â€Å"buzz word† in the mode rn age corporations (Arrizza, 2009). This has also invited much debate owing to the conflict between the intrinsic nature of business and the ethical standards it is required to comply with. Business ethics is increasingly being taught in schools all over the world presently. ... Discussion: In any kind of business, the owner makes cost and benefit analysis of his decision to know whether the cost incurred in taking the action surpasses or is less than the expected benefits. Interestingly, what is beneficial to an entrepreneur is often harmful for many others and vice versa. Few decades ago, the doyen of market economics, Milton Friedman overtly expressed the concerns of a businessman saying, â€Å"There is one and only one social responsibility of business—to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.† (Friedman cited in, 2000). Business owners tend to measure the financial benefits of their decisions. Any attempt that is business driven is an attempt to maximize the profits. A successful business is often quite ignorant of the implications of the owners’ actions on the society at large. This can be attributed to the fact that the stakeholders affected by the businessman’s decisions often realize that their rights have been subdued or they have been harmed in any way much after the harm was actually caused. For example, as the technological era was gaining strength, more and more industries were being established. The establishment of factories and industries was seen as a sign of development. People were not educated much. The scientific research was also not quite mature and sufficient to judge the environmental impacts of the conventional practices that were in place. The factories discharged waste into the water, and polluted the air with chemical rich dust. No one actually estimated the dreadful impacts of such practices until global warming showed up in the form of a